Geophysical models of the atmosphere and ocean invariably involve parameterizations. These represent two distinct areas: a) Subgrid processes which the model cannot (yet) resolve, due to its discrete resolution, and b) diabatic sources in the equations, due to radiation for example. Hence, coupling between these physics parameterizations and the resolved fluid dynamics and also between the dynamics of the different fluids in the system (air and water), is necessary. This coupling is an important aspect of geophysical models. However, often model development is strictly segregated into either physics or dynamics.
As a consequence, this area has many more unanswered questions than in-depth understanding. Furthermore, recent developments in the design of dynamical cores, extended process physics and predicted future changes of the computational infrastructure is adding even more complexity and new questions.